Wire drawing is a pivotal process in the metalworking industry. This technique, which has been used for centuries, involves reducing the cross-sectional area of a wire by pulling it through one or several wire drawing dies. The process is akin to threading a needle, with the wire being the thread and the die being the needle’s eye. This process has a plethora of applications, including the production of electrical wires, cables, tension structural components, springs, paper clips, wheel spokes, and stringed musical instruments. The versatility of wire drawing makes it an indispensable process in various industries, from construction to telecommunications, and from automotive manufacturing to music production.
The Wire Drawing Process
The wire drawing process is a fascinating one. It begins with a wire rod in its most primary state, which contains a thin but significant layer of iron, a product of its hot production process. This layer, known as calamine, is removed by a calamine stripping machine to ensure that the drawing process is fluid and effective. The removal of calamine is a crucial step as it prevents the wire from breaking during the drawing process. It also ensures that the wire has a smooth and clean surface, which is essential for its subsequent uses.
Wire Sharpening in Wire Drawing
The next step in the process involves a wire sharpening machine. This machine is used to sharpen the tip of the round wire to obtain a pointed shape. The aim of this first step is to facilitate the entry of the wire into the wire drawing machine, as it uses some drawing cones in which it is easier and more fluid work for the drawing machine if the wire already comes with the shape of these cones. The sharpening process is akin to sharpening a pencil, where the tip of the wire is made pointed to ensure it can easily pass through the drawing dies.
The Main Machine: The Wire Drawing Machine
The wire drawing machine is the biggest and main machine in the whole system. It is in charge of receiving the sharpened wire and gradually reducing its diameter. The wire rod, sharpened with machine 2, enters the first drawing die, is pulled and led to the next drawing step until the desired final diameter is obtained, and is rewound as drawn wire. The machine operates in a continuous manner, pulling the wire through the dies, reducing its diameter, and then winding it onto a coil. This process is repeated until the wire reaches the desired diameter.
Grafiling in Wire Drawing
Another important step in the wire drawing process is grafiling. This is carried out on the drawn wire when steel rod or electrowelded mesh for concrete reinforcement is manufactured. Grafiling involves creating a pattern on the surface of the wire to improve its adhesion properties. This is particularly important when the wire is used for concrete reinforcement, as the grafiling helps the wire to bond better with the concrete, thereby enhancing the strength and durability of the reinforced concrete structure.
Control Systems in Wire Drawing
The wire drawing process is controlled by a PLC, which controls the electrical system of the wire drawing machine, allowing its speed and pulling force to be varied. It is important that the PLC is carefully protected from the working environment and has a box designed for comfortable use. The PLC ensures that the machine operates at the optimal speed and pulling force, thereby ensuring the quality of the drawn wire and the efficiency of the process.
Joining the Wires
The final step in the wire drawing process involves a wire joining welding machine. This machine allows the union of two coils (or rolls) of wire drawn by means of a spot welder to fuse their lengths and offer coils in any weight. This is particularly useful when long lengths of wire are required, as it allows for the continuous production of wire without the need to stop and start the machine.
The Two-line Wire Drawing Machine
A notable advancement in the field of wire drawing is the two-line wire drawing machine. This machine can draw two wires and spool two wire at the same time, making it a highly efficient tool for wire drawing. It can draw the hard wire and the continuous annealing soft copper and other types of wires. The two-line wire drawing machine is a testament to the continuous innovation in the field of wire drawing, with manufacturers constantly striving to improve the efficiency and versatility of their machines.
Wire drawing is a complex and fascinating process that plays a crucial role in many industries. Whether it’s for creating electrical wires, cables, tension structural components, springs, paper clips, wheel spokes, or stringed musical instruments, the wire drawing process is indispensable. With advancements like the two-line wire drawing machine, the process is becoming more efficient and versatile, opening up new possibilities for the future of wire drawing. As we continue to rely on wire for various applications, the importance of wire drawing is set to grow even further.